Toxicology of herbal drugs

Herbal DrugsPopular NameCientific NameUsed PartPrinciple compoundsPharmacology UseInstruccionsposologycontraindicationside effectsToxicology in vivo
Alder buckthorn [16][109]
Alder buckthorn
Frangula alnus
The bark (Frangulae cortex) which is constituted by the dried, whole or fragmented bark of the stems and the branches of Rhamnus frangula L. (Frangula alnus Miller), subjected to storage for one year or a hot air treatment before of its use.The active principles are constituted by hidroxiantracénicos heterósidos, mainly anthraquinónicos: glucofrangulinas To and B (= glucofrangulósidos A and B), frangulinas A and B, and frangulaemodina-8-O-glucósido. The drug also contains fission and crisofanol, in free and monoglycosylated form. According to the European Pharmacopoeia, the bark of frangula must contain at least 7.0% glucofrangulins, expressed as glucofrangulin A and calculated with respect to the dried drug.Laxative, due to hydroxyanthracene glycosides, which manifests after 8-12 hours of oral administration. Said heterósidos, arrive without being absorbed to the large intestine, where they are hydrolyzed and transformed in the corresponding active metabolites by action of the enzymes of the intestinal flora. They cause an increase in intestinal peristalsis and the secretion of water and electrolytes towards the intestinal lumen, with the consequent laxative effect.Fragile bark and its extracts are used in the short-term treatment of occasional constipation. This indication is approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) as "well-established use" for the drug and standardized preparations.Dosage recommended by the EMA for adults, older than 12 years and elderly: Drug or preparations with a content equivalent to 15-30 mg of hydroxyanthracene derivatives calculated as glucofrangulin A, taken in a single dose, at night. It is usually enough to take it two or three times in a week.Known hypersensitivity, obstruction, stenosis, intestinal atony, appendicitis, inflammatory diseases of the colon, abdominal pains of unknown origin and states of severe dehydration with loss of water and electrolytes.

Children under 12 years old.
Occasionally spasms and abdominal pain, especially in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. There may be a change in the color of the urine, without clinical significance, to yellowish-brown or reddish (depending on the pH), due to hydroxyanthracene derivatives eliminated in the urine. Pseudomelanosis coli (pigmentation of the intestinal mucosa), especially in case of chronic administration; It usually disappears after a few months of stopping.Acute toxicity data are available for emodin in mice. The intraperitoneal LD50 (dimethylsulfoxide
solvent) is 35 mg/kg; the oral LD50 (dimethylsulfoxide solvent) is greater than 1,000 mg/kg (58).
Aloe[73][74]AloeAloe barbadensisThe aloe or acíbar, which is constituted by concentrated and dried juice, obtained by incision from the pericyclic area of the leaves of several species of Aloe, mainly.Acíbar and Aloe GelAcíbar:
It has laxative action, more or less intense according to the dose. It belongs to the group of stimulant laxatives. Aloe Gel:
Aloe gel has wound healing, anti-inflammatory, immunodulatory and antiviral action.
Acíbar It is also used in pathological conditions in which easy evacuation with soft feces is necessary Or when intestinal emptying is necessary prior to explorations or surgical interventions. Aloe gel: It is used, mainly topically, for the treatment of wounds, burns, irritations and inflammations of the skin.Acíbar the acybar powder and the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts, in the form of liquid or solid preparations, are used orally. Aloe gel: Topically the newly obtained gel is used or prepared with 10-70% fresh gel. Acíbar: Known hypersensitivity to the drug. Intestinal obstruction and stenosis, atony, inflammatory diseases of the colon. Aloe Gel: Known hypersensitivity to plants of the Liliaceae family.Acíbar: Spasms and abdominal pain, especially in patients with irritable bowel. Aloe gel: contact dermatitis and burning on the skin subsequent to the application of aloe gel preparations on skin subjected to dermabrasion.Dosed water studies with aloe latex (HAD content unknown) in mice revealed no acute toxicity in the
leaf pulp at 500 mg/kg bw. At higher doses a decrease of central nervous system activity was
observed (Shah et al.,1989)
Anise dried composite fruitStar Anise [25] [26]anisum verumThe dried composite fruit is usedStar anise contains abundant essential oil (5-8%), consisting mostly of trans-anethole (80-90%), accompanied by about 5% of monoterpene hydrocarbons (limonene, α-pinene), virtually absent in the essential oil of green anise. In contrast, the pseudoisoeugenyl 2-methylbutyrate ester, present in the essence of green anise, is not found in star anise. According to the European Pharmacopoeia, the dried fruit must contain at least 70 mL / Kg of essential oil, and the latter a minimum of 86% trans-anethole.
Other constituents of the drug are: fixed oil and tannins.
As in the case of green anise, the essential oil of star anise has carminative, expectorant, spasmolytic and antiseptic action. Recently, it has been shown that the hydroethanolic extract and the star anise essential oil, as well as its main constituent, trans-anethole, have acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.According to Commission E of the German Ministry of Health, star anise preparations are used in the treatment of dyspeptic disorders and respiratory catarrhs, analogous to green anise.
Both star anise and its essential oil are used as correctors of taste and odor in the pharmaceutical and food industry and in liquor stores.
Recommendations of the Commission E: except for another prescription, average daily dose of 3 g of drug or 0.3 g of essential oil, or the equivalent dose of the corresponding preparations.Known sensitivity to anise, anethole or other essential oils. No other contraindications for star anise have been described at the recommended therapeutic doses.
Unless expressly indicated, it is recommended to refrain from prescribing the essential oil of star anise internally during pregnancy, lactation, to children under six years of age or to patients with gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease , liver disease, epilepsy, Parkinson's or other neurological diseases.
At high doses, the essential oil can be toxic, with narcotic effects, delirium, anesthesia and seizures.
Anethole has a weak mutagenic activity.
There is a serious danger of poisoning if the star anise is falsified with the fruit of another species whose commercialization is prohibited: Illicium religiosumSieb, called badiana from Japan or Japanese star anise, which practically does not contain anethole, but other toxic compounds such as anisatin and isoanisatin.
Oral LD50 values per kg b.w. were determined for the essential oil as 2.7 g in rats (Von Skramlik, 1959) and for trans-anethole as 1.8-5.0 g in mice; 2.1-3.2 g in rats; and 2.16 g in guinea pigs
Anise fruit [35] [36] Anise
Pimpinella anisum L
The dried fruit (diachene) is used (Anisi fructus), sometimes mistakenly called "seed", of Pimpinella anisum. Frequently, a small piece of pedicel is attached, thin and slightly curved.Anise fruit activity is mainly due to its essential oil (2-6%), consisting mainly of trans-anethole (87-94%), responsible for the smell and taste. Other minor components are: estragole (methylcavicol) (0.5-5.0%), anisaldehyde (0.1-1.4%), cis-anethole (0.1-1.4%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (especially , γ-himachalen, approximately 2%) and monoterpene (less than 1%, different from star anise). The essence of the original green anise is characterized by the presence of up to 2.0% pseudoisoeugenyl 2-methylbutyrate.The green anise has carminative, digestive, spasmolytic (especially at the respiratory and digestive levels), expectorant, antibacterial and antifungal action. All these activities are mainly due to their essential oil. The spasmolytic activity has been evidenced in different experimental models for the alcoholic extract and the essential oil of anise green at the trachea and ileum level.
The trans-anethole and the essential oil of green anise have shown at high doses a weak estrogenic and antifertilizing activity in laboratory animals that is not considered relevant for man.
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) accepts the traditional use of anise and its essential oil, orally, in the symptomatic treatment of mild spasmodic digestive disorders, including abdominal distension and flatulence. Also, as expectorants in case of cough associated with colds.
The essential oil of green anise also intervenes in preparations for inhalation.
Both the green anise and its essence are used as correctors of taste and smell in the pharmaceutical and food industry and in liquor stores.
1. Fruit.
Recommendations of the EMA for people older than 12 years: 1-3.5 g of whole or cut anise in an infusion in 150 mL of boiling water, 3 times a day.
The EMA considers that there is not enough documentation to recommend its use in children under 12 years of age. However, ESCOP in these cases accepts the use of the drug in infusion at the following daily average doses:

- 0-1 year: 0.5 g of crushed fruits.

- 1-4 years: 1 g.

- 4-10 years: 2 g.

- 10-16 years: the dose of adults.
The preparations of anise green are contraindicated in case of hypersensitivity to the drug or other plants of the Apiáceas family (fennel, caraway, celery, coriander and dill), or to anethole.Occasionally, allergic skin reactions, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract.Estrogenic activity and antifertility and foetal cell toxicity effects have been shown for trans-anethole (the major constituent of the anise oil) in rats. Ingestion of 1 to 5 ml of anise oil was associated with nausea, vomiting, seizures and pulmonary oedema (Newall et al., 1996). Probable oral lethal dose of anise oil had been reported for human beings to be in the range from 50 to 500 mg/kg b.w. (Oil of anise, Toxnet).
Arnica flower[75]Mountain TobaccoArnica montanaIs constituted by the dried flower. Popularly, roots and leaves are also used.The main components of the arnica flower are sesquiterpene lactones (0.2-0.8%) of the pseudoguayanolido group, mainly esters of helenaline and 11α, 13-dihydrohelenalin with short chain fatty acidsAnti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiplatelet, antihistaminic and antibacterial actions.The European Medicines Agency (EMA) approves its traditional use (in topical application) for the relief of localized bruises, sprains and muscular pains.Arnica flower preparations are mainly applied topically. The entire drug is used, cut or sprayed for infusion and for the preparation of liquid or semi-solid dosage forms.Hypersensitivity to the arnica flower, to other compounds or to its prolonged use. Open wounds, dermatitis. The safety of its use during pregnancy and lactation has not been established.Prolonged use on damaged skin, as in the case of open wounds or leg ulcers, frequently produces edematous dermatitis with formation of vesicles, and eczema. The application of preparations with high concentration can cause toxic primary skin reactions, which can range from the appearance of vesicles to necrosis.Single dose toxicity:
The oral LD50 of an extract (not further specified) was >5 g/kg in rats and 123 mg/kg in mice. The LD50 using intraperitoneal administration was 31 mg/kg for mice (CIR Expert Panel, 2001).
Belladona[76]Deadly nightshadeAtropa belladonnaThe leaf (Belladonnae folium).Tropic alkaloids (0.03-0.06%): l-hyoscyamine (predominant in the fresh plant), atropine (in the dry plant), norhiosciamine, noratropine. Scopanol esters: scopolamine or hyoscine, atroscine. Hydroxycoumarin: scopoletol.Atropine and hyoscyamine have an intense parasympatholytic action by inhibiting the muscarinic (M) receptors of the peripheral organs and the central nervous system. Belladonna was widely used in therapeutics, primarily as antiasthmaticExclusive use under medical supervisionGlaucoma, arterial hypertension, prostate adenoma, myasthenia gravis, coronary disease, gastrointestinal obstructive disease. It should be avoided in elderly patients and in children.Dry mouth, tachycardia, marked mydriasis, nausea, delirium, loss of consciousness.
BerberisBarberryBerberis vulgaris
Root, bark, bark of roots, fruits.The whole plant, except the fruits, contains alkaloids (2-3%), including berberine, along with other isoquinolinic alkaloids: protoberberines, tetrahydroprotoberberines, bisbenzyltetrahydroisoquinolines, aporphines, proaporfins, etc.
- Fruits: Dextrose, levulose, citric, tartaric and malic acids, gum, pectose. Seeds may contain traces of alkaloids.
Antiarrhythmic action in ventricular tachycardia, positive inotropic, reduces peripheral resistance. A central mechanism of action is suggested. With direct vasorelative action, independent of endothelium. An antiplatelet effect has been documented. An inhibitory mechanism of arachidonic acid metabolism is suggested for berberine.Evaluation of Commission E: Until its effectiveness is documented, its therapeutic use is not recommended. Its use at present is very restricted. At the beginning of the twentieth century the use of berberine was recommended for the discontinuation of dependence on opiates. It has also been used in congestive heart failure.Decoction: one teaspoon of coffee per cup. Boil 3 minutes. 2-3 cups a day.Pregnancy, breastfeeding, children. Obstruction of the bile ducts.There are reports that berberine causes nausea, vomiting, hypertension, respiratory failure and paresthesias abnormal sensations such as numbness or tingling.
Black cohosh[77][78]Black cohoshActaea racemosa L.Rhizome and dried root of Actaea racemosa L. (synonym: Cimicifuga racemosa. (L.) Nutt.)Triterpenic hetero acids derived from cycloartane (saponosides): actein, 27-deoxyacetin, cimicifugoside, cyclamate glycosides A-H; derived from hydroxycinnamic acid: caffeic, ferulic, isoferulic, fukinolic acids, cimicifugic acids A, B, E and F, small amounts of N-methylserotonin and traces of formononetin.1. Effect on menopausal symptomatology: Cymbaluga rhizome has been traditionally used for the treatment of various gynecological disorders, such as relief of menopausal symptoms. Although it was considered as a source of phytoestrogens, it is currently ruled out that its effect on climacteric symptomatology is related to the activation of estrogen receptors. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) considers the relief of minor neurovegetative disorders associated with menopause, such as hot flashes and sweating, as a "well-established use" for dried extracts of rhizome of cimicífuga.
ESCOP approves the use of rhizome of cimicífuga for the treatment of the climacteric symptoms, like hot flashes, profuse sweating, sleep disorders and nervous irritability.
EMA, for women during the menopause, daily dose of extract equivalent to 40 mg of drug, oral, in one or two doses. ESCOP: 40-140 mg / day, orally, of standardized alcoholic extract (40% isopropanols or 40-60% ethanol) or equivalent preparations. Clinical improvement is seen between 4 to 6 weeks of treatment. Commission E (unless otherwise stated): Alcoholic extracts (40-60% V / V), equivalent to 40 mg of drug.Due to its potential effect on luteinizing hormone (LH), C. racemosa is contraindicated in children and adolescents up to the age of 18 years and is not recommended for use during pregnancy and lactation.Good tolerance is observed, with no side effects present in 93% of patients, allowing therapy for unlimited time. Some cases of gastrointestinal problems have been described, profuse sweating, vertigo, headache, hypertension or hypotension, increased menstrual flow, changes in heart rate, restlessness, and visual disturbances.There is a 6 month oral toxicity study with the isopropanolic extract, followed by an 8 week recovery period in Wistar rats. The daily doses were 2.925, 21.06 and 58.5 mg/kg body weight (equals to 250,1 800 and 5 000 mg granulate/kg body weight).
Boldo leaf [6]Boldo[107]
Peumus boldus
The whole or fragmented leaves of Peumus boldus Molina are used. (Boldi folium).The active substances are isoquinoline alkaloids derived from aporphine and noraporphine (0.2-0.5%) of which more than twenty have been isolated, highlighting in proportion the boldine and others in smaller quantity such as isoboldine, (+) reticulin, laurotetanin and laurolitsin.
Contains essential oil (1-3%) composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (para-cymene, α and β-pinene, γ-terpinene, limonene, β-phellandrene), oxygenated monoterpenes (1,8-cineol, linalool, camphor, ascaridol) . It also has flavonoids (ramnetol, isorramnetol, kempferol) and tannins (1-2%).
A digestive action (aperitive, choleretic, cholagogue) has been described as well as hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiateromatose (inhibits lipid peroxidation), hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anthelmintic, fungicidal, cytoprotective, antitumor. The essential oil has bactericidal activity.The European Medicines Agency (EMA) approves its traditional use for the symptomatic relief of dyspepsia and mild gastrointestinal affections of spasmodic character.

ESCOP also indicates the use of minor hepatobiliary dysfunctions and as a coadjuvant in the treatment of constipation.
Proposed by the EMA, for adults and the elderly:

- Infusion: 1-2 g in 150 mL of water, 2-3 times a day.

- Dry extract (5: 1, aqueous): 200-400 mg, 2 times a day.

Duration of treatment: 2 weeks. If symptoms persist, consult a health professional.
It is contraindicated in case of obstruction of the biliary tract, cholangitis, liver disease, biliary lithiasis and other conditions that require medical control.

Commission E recommended not to use pure essential oil, due to its content in ascaridol, however not always boldo essential oil is rich in ascaridol.
There is not enough information to guarantee the safety of its use during pregnancy, breastfeeding and children under 18 years of age.
The intraperitoneal LD50 in mice of an ethanolic extract of boldo (80%; no further details recorded) was found to be equivalent to 6 g/kg (Levy-Appert-Collin and Levy, 1977).
Boldo leaf[95][96]BoldoPeumus boldus MolinaThe whole or fragmented leaves of Peumus boldus Molina are used. (Boldi folium).The active substances are isoquinoline alkaloids derived from aporphine and noraporphine. It contains essential oil (1-3%) composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes and also has flavonoids. The European Pharmacopoeia requires for the leaf a minimum content of alkaloids expressed as boldina: 1% for the leaf, 0.5% for the aqueous extracts and 1% for the hydroalcoholic extracts.A digestive action (aperitive, choleretic, cholagogue) has been described as well as hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiateromatose (inhibits lipid peroxidation), hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anthelmintic, fungicidal, cytoprotective, antitumor. The essential oil has bactericidal activity.EMA: approves its traditional use for the symptomatic relief of dyspepsia and mild gastrointestinal affections of spasmodic character. ESCOP also indicates the use of minor hepatobiliary dysfunctions and as a coadjuvant in the treatment of constipation.Proposed by the EMA, for adults and the elderly: - Infusion: 1-2 g in 150 mL of water, 2-3 times a day. - Dry extract (5: 1, aqueous): 200-400 mg, 2 times a day . Duration of treatment: 2 weeks. If symptoms persist, consult a health professional. ESCOP: - Infusion: 2-5 g drug / day.- 0.2-0.6 g of drug or equivalent doses of hydroalcoholic extracts - Dye (1: 5, ethanol 80%): 1-3 mL daily.- Extract fluid (1: 1, 80% ethanol): 0.5-1 mL daily. Duration of treatment: up to 4 weeksIt is contraindicated in case of obstruction of the biliary tract, cholangitis, liver disease, biliary lithiasis and other conditions that require medical control. Commission E recommended not to use pure essential oil, due to its content in ascaridol, however not always boldo essential oil is rich in ascaridol.There is not enough information to guarantee the safety of its use during pregnancy, breastfeeding and children under 18 years of age.Oral administration of a hydroethanolic extract (no further details recorded) of boldo to rats in single doses up to 3 g/kg body weight caused no deaths or toxic symptoms (Magistretti, 1980). The intraperitoneal LD50 in mice of an ethanolic extract of boldo (80%; no further details recorded)
was found to be equivalent to 6 g/kg (Levy-Appert-Collin and Levy, 1977) When boldine was administered orally, doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg were required to cause death of mice and guinea pigs, respectively (Kreitmair, 1952). The intraperitoneal LD50 values of total alkaloids and of boldine in mice were reported to be 420 and 250 mg/kg, respectively (Levy-Appert-Collin and
Levy, 1977).
Bryonia rootWhite brionyBryonia creticaThe rootBitter principles: cucurbitacin glucosides (bryodulcoside, bryoside, bryonoside, cucurbitacin L, bryonamid and bryonosides A-C).Currently in disuse. Traditionally it has been considered a drastic and emetic purgative. The fresh plant has a rubefaciente and even vesicant action.Due to its high toxicity, it is not used internally.It is not advisable to use in weight doses.The fresh root and its juice, in topical use, produce a powerful rubefaciente effect, being able to provoke vesication and even skin ulcerations and necrosis.
Camomile flower [9]Hungarian camomileChamomilla recutitaDried floral chaptersThe main constituents of the floral chapters of chamomile are the essential oil.Common chamomile has anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, antiulcerous, carminative, digestive, bactericidal, fungicidal and mild sedative action due to the different active principles of the drug.For adults and children over 6 years, let it dissolve under the tongue. take the whole tube dose at once.
For children under 6, dissolve it in a small amount of water.
Adults: Infusion: 3 g of drug in 150 mL of hot water, 3-4 times a day. Fluid extract (ethanol 45-60%): single dose of 1-4 mL. Dry extract: 50-300 mg, 3 times daily.Do not apply in the form of baths in case of open wounds, skin conditions extensive acute skin inflammations or elevated fever.Common chamomile has a much lower allergenic potential than other chamomiles. Cross-reactions may occur with other species having sesquiterpene lactones. Very rarely, the fresh plant can cause contact dermatitis.
Cannabis [79][80]CanabisCannabis sativaA medicine is used that contains two soft extracts of leaf and flower of Cannabis sativa L.The active principles of hemp are the cannabinoids, of terpenofenole structure, emphasizing as the main component the Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or THC. More than 60 cannabinoids have been described, being the majority, cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabinol and Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol.The mechanism of pharmacological action is based on the stimulation of cannabinoid receptors found in different brain and peripheral areas.Indian hemp is included in the list of plants whose sale to the public is prohibited or restricted because of its toxicity. Sativex medicine approved by the Spanish Medicines AgencyIt is given as a mouthwash solution (applied to the inside of the cheek or under the tongue) and has a flexible dosage regimen.Hypersensitivity to cannabinoids or to any of the excipients. Personal or family history of schizophrenia or other psychotic illnesses, severe personality disorder or other major psychiatric disorders other than depression associated with the underlying disease.The most commonly reported adverse reactions during the first four weeks of exposure were dizziness and fatigue.
Cat's claw
Cat's claw
Corteza de la liana y eventualmente las hojas y las raíces.Oxindole alkaloids: dihydrocorinantein, isorincophylline, pteropodin, mitraphylline, rincofilin, speciofilin, hirsutin, isomitraphylline, N-oxide-isomitraphylline, N-oxide-dihydrocorinanteinine, N-oxide-hirsutin, uncarin F, yohimbine; Inhaled alkaloid: 5-alpha-Carboxystretostytine glycosides of quinogic acid.Currently their immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory actions are considered proven.

It is considered that the anti-inflammatory effect is due to its ability to inhibit TNF alpha and to a lesser extent the production of PGE2.

Clinical trials demonstrate its effectiveness on joint pain in rheumatoid arthritis. This anti-inflammatory activity is greater if hydroalcoholic extracts are used, which show a slight inhibitory activity on cyclooxygen 1 and 2.
It is popularly used to treat osteoarticular inflammations (osteoarthritis), cystitis, gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers, diabetes, viriasis, menstrual cycle disorders, asthma, convalescence.- Decoction: at 2% for 20 minutes. Three or more cups a day.

- Tincture (1: 1º in 70º alcohol solution): 50-100 drops, one to three times a day
Pregnancy, breastfeeding Alcoholic withdrawal (tincture).Due to its content in tannins and bitter principles, it can cause gastric discomfort in people with hypersecretory dyspepsia, which can be prevented by administering it in the form of capsules, enteric tablets or administering it postprandially in tisanes associated with demulcent drugs, such as marshmallow
Chelidonii herba[81][82]Devil’s milkChelidonium majusThe aerial parts (Chelidonii herba) collected during flowering; Traditionally fresh latex is also used.The main alkaloids are benzylisoquinoline and benzophenanthridines. Proteolytic enzymes are found in the latex.Actions approved by Commission E: soft spasmolytic, especially at the level of the digestive tract.Traditionally it has also been used as analgesic, mild sedative, antitussive, antibacterial, antiviral, keratolytic and antiverrucous.Indications approved by ESCOP: symptomatic relief of gastrointestinal spasms, minor biliary disorders; Dyspeptic problems such as feeling of bloating and flatulence.Dosage recommended by ESCOP (after age 12): Infusion: 1-2-3.6 g per dose. Hydroalcoholic extracts standardized in 9-24 mg of total alkaloids calculated as chelidonine: 125-700 mg. Tincture (1:10): 2-4 mL, 3 times daily. Fluid extract (1: 1): 1-2 mL, three times daily.Pregnancy, lactation, liver disease, biliary tract obstruction.Do not consume this plant internally. In the case in which it is used, celydonia should not be taken for prolonged periods of time, as it causes external mucosal irritation and can lead to nausea and vomiting and gastrointestinal irritation.Sokoloff et al. (1964) describes intraperitoneal application of 350 mg/kg body weight of a methanolic extract in mice resulting in a 20% mortality rate. The study rather points out to a low toxicity of the extract tested, given a LC50 above 350 mg/kg body weight.
Cinchona barkCinchonaCinchona sp.The dried barkAlkaloids in variable proportion according to the species; in the red quina is between 4.5-8.5% of total alkaloids among which the majority is quinine, along with quinidine, cinchonine and cinconidine.The officinal is the red quina; the gray quina is usually used in licoristería and the yellow quinas to obtain alkaloids. The drug and its extracts are used to stimulate appetite and gastric secretions.Indications approved by Commission E: Inapetence, dyspepsia hyposecretory, heavy digestion cons sensation of fullness and swelling.Daily dosage recommended by Commission E, except as otherwise provided:
- 1-3 g of the drug.
- 0.6-3 g of liquid extract (with a total alkaloid content of 4-6%).
- 0.15-0.6 g of extract with a total alkaloid content of 15-20%.
Or preparations with an equivalent moistness index.
Hypersensitivity to quinine or any of its components.
Pregnancy, due to its oxytocic action.
Gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers
In the case of hypersensitivity to quinine, allergic skin reactions or fever may occur. It has been associated with some cases of bleeding due to thrombocytopenia.
Coffea seed [83]coffeeCoffea arabicaThe seeds also the carbon obtained when carbonizing the seeds.Mineral salts: potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium. Organic acids: caffeilquinic or chlorogenic. TrigonellinaCaffeine is a stimulant of the central nervous system, joining the adenosine receptors, being antagonists of the A1 and A2A receptors. Increases waking state and has an ergogenic effect increases the ability to perform physical effort.Psychophysical asthenia and fatigue symptoms. Caffeine is used as an adjunct in the treatment of migraines and overweight, as well as associated with drugs with sedative side effectsExcept for another prescription: 15 g / day in infusion, distributed in 2-3 doses. The administration of the last daily dose is advised to do so before five in the afternoon, in order to reduce the possible incidence of insomniaAllergy to caffeine or other xanthines, patients with severe cardiovascular disorders (heart failure, coronary insufficiency), arrhythmia, gastroduodenal ulcer, epilepsy, insomnia, pregnancy, lactation and children under 12 years.The adverse effects of caffeine are, in general, mild and transient, although frequent. It can produce insomnia and nervousness, although differences in individual reactions can be remarkable.
Cumin fruit [5]
Cumin
Cuminum cyminum
Fruit.The cumin fruits contain essential oil (2-4%), rich in cumin or cumin aldehyde (25-35%), accompanied by safranal and in a lesser proportion pinene and terpineol; it also contains sesquiterpene lactone glycosides (cuminosides); flavonoids: derivatives of luteolin and apigenin; steroids, etcTraditionally used as a food spice, a eupeptic, carminative, spasmolytic, galactogen, emmenagogue, anthelmintic and slightly hypoglycaemic effect is attributed to it.

In ayurvedic medicine, cumin is used in the treatment of gonorrhea, dyspepsia, diarrhea and hepatobiliary affections.

Through in vitro and in vivo tests, its antibacterial properties have also been proven against various pathogens, antifungal, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, antithrombotic, anticarcinogenic and immunomodulatory.
Traditional uses: meteorism, hiposecretory dyspepsia, gastrointestinal spasms, dysmenorrhea, diabetes, diarrhea and to stimulate milk secretion.Popular use: 2% infusion, 2-3 cups a day.

In the work of Kapoor on plants of Ayurvedic medicine a dose of 3 to 6 g of drug / day is indicated.
it has been observed (in rats) that if it is administered in doses higher than 10% in the diet it produces alterations in the development and in the liver.It is a well tolerated species with a very low incidence of adverse effects.
Dandelion leaf [33] [34]DandelionTaraxacum officinaleThe leaves (Taraxaci folium) and the root (Taraxaci radix) of Taraxacum officinale Weber latu sensu. Frequently the aerial parts (Taraxaci herba) and the root mixed with the aerial parts are marketed, without inflorescence (Taraxaci radix cum herba).- Roots: Sesquiterpene lactones, germacranolide and eudesmanolic type, inulin, pentacyclic triterpene alcohols, phytosterols. - Leaves: Sesquiterpene lactones, germacranolide type; tirterpenes (cycloartenol); phytosterols; flavonoids Abundant potassium salts (up to 4.5%).The root is traditionally considered diuretic, choleretic and cholagogue. The leaves are popularly used as a diuretic. Popularly, the whole plant is considered "depurative" and mild laxative, used in the treatment of eczema and other skin conditions, gout and rheumatic disorders.EMA: approves the traditional use of leaf and root with aerial parts to activate urinary elimination (urinary tract lavage therapy), as an adjuvant in mild urinary conditions. It also approves the traditional use of the root with aerial parts, for the relief of mild digestive disorders, such as sensation of fullness, flatulence and slow digestion, as well as in the temporary loss of appetite.EMA: Leaf: Infusion: 4-10 g, up to three times a day. Fluid extract (1: 1, ethanol 25%): 4-10 mL, 3 times a day. Fresh leaf juice: 5-10 mL, twice a day.Hypersensitivity to the plant or to others of the Composite family. Contraindications (for the root and root with aerial parts): obstruction of the biliary tract, cholangitis, biliary lithiasis, or other biliary conditions; Peptic ulcer, except for prescription.Root and aerial parts: due to its content in bitter substances, it can cause gastric discomfort with hyperacidity. To avoid this, in sensitive people, we recommend associating with mucilaginous drugs. Although it has been observed in very rare occasions, the latex of the fresh plant can produce contact dermatitis, due to sesquiterpene lactones.No visible signs of acute toxicity were identified after oral administration of 3–6 g/kg body weight dried whole dandelion plants in rats (Akhtar MS et al. 1985).
Devil's Claw [17] [18]
Devil's Claw
Harpagophytum procumbens
The drug (harpagophyti radix) consists of the secondary tuberized, cut and dried root of Harpagophytum procumbens DC and / or H. zeyheri Decne.The most characteristic chemical constituents of the root of harpagofito are the iridoides, mainly the harpagósido (0,8-3% in H. procumbens and 0,7% to 1,7% in H. zeyheri), together 8-p-cumaroil -harpágido, and with small amounts of procúmbido and its 6'-p-coumaroyl ester.
Other components: heteroside esters fenilpropánicos (verbascósido or acteósido, isoacteósido), flavonoides, phenolic acids, sugars (highlights the stachyose tetrasaccharide, up to 46%), free and heterosídicos phytosterols, oleanolic-type triterpenes, traces of essential oil.
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity: numerous experimental studies in vivo with various extracts of harpagofito root, have shown their anti-inflammatory activity (in models of acute or chronic inflammation) and analgesic (against pain induced by chemical, thermal or mechanical stimuli), being the harpagósido one of the responsible principles of this activity.The European Medicines Agency (EMA) and ESCOP accept the traditional use of the root of harpagofito for the relief of joint pain and mild digestive disorders, such as flatulence and bloating and for a temporary lack of appetite.
Several clinical studies show the effectiveness of the drug and its different extracts in the treatment of pain related to osteoarthritis, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, chronic low back pain and other osteoarticular conditions of rheumatic or non-rheumatic origin.
Dosage proposed by the EMA (daily dose, in adults):
For the relief of joint pain:

- Infusion: 4.5 g of crushed drug, in 500 mL of water, in 3 doses (the preparation is allowed to marinate 8 hours).

- Drug powder: 435 mg, 3 times a day (1.35 g / day).

- Fluid extract (1: 1, 30% v / v ethanol solvent): 1.03 g in a single dose.

- Soft extract (2.5-4.0: 1, ethanol 70% v / v): 240 mg in one dose.

- Dry extract (1.5-2.5: 1, water solvent): 100-1,200 mg 2-3 times a day (daily dose: up to 2.4 g).
there are no contraindicationsIn general, harpagofito root preparations are well tolerated and only mild adverse reactions are seen in prolonged treatments or in particularly sensitive individuals. These side effects (with an incidence of 3%) are mainly gastrointestinal complaints: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea.
Echinacea roots [27] [28]EchinaceaEchinacea pallidaRoots and leavesIt is composed mainly of glycosides, echinacoside, echinacein n-isobutyldodecatetraeno-amide (neoherculin), essential oil (1.25%), beta-caryophylline with 18%, terpenes (myrcene, pinene, thujone), geranyl-isobutyrate, geranil -acetate, geranyl-propionate, fatty acids, oleic acid, linoleic acid, ceric acid, palmitic acid, phytosterols, sitosterol, sitosterol-3-d-glucoside, stigmasterol, alkaloids, tussilagina, isotussilagina, betaine, resins, cichoric acid, derivatives unsaturated polyacetylene, flavonoids, tannins, inulin, pentosans, reducing sugars and vitamin C.Stimulation of cell-mediated
immune mechanisms
Used for treatment of upper and
lower respiratory infections,pelvic infections
 

Adolescents over 12 years of age, adults, elderly


3 times daily 1 tablet containing 30 mg dry extract
Known hypersensitivity to plants of the Compound family or to the active ingredients.Due to its immunostimulant effect, echinacea should not be used in cases of autoimmune diseases, immunodeficiencies, immunosuppressive treatments and conditions that occur with increased leukocytes.In case of susceptibility to allergies, parenteral use is not recommended.Parenterally, depending on the dose, echinacea preparations can cause short-term febrile reactions, nausea and vomiting. Oral effects have not been reported orally. Very rarely, in sensitive individuals, topical allergic reactions may appear. In treatments over 8 weeks, leukopenia may appear.
Eucalyptus leaf [21] [22]
Eucalypt
Eucalyptus globulusleaves of the adult branchesBark: proanthocyanidin oligomers (5%), turpentine (essential oil, 15-30%, resin, 70-85%), tannins.Essential oil (1-3.5%): whose main component is 1,8-cineol or eucalyptol, together with globulol, trans-pinocarveol, α-terpineol, cimeno, α-pinene and β-pinene. The essential oil is antitussive, expectorant and antiseptic. The essential oil gives it a marked antiseptic action, especially on the respiratory tract, both in internal use as well as by inhalation or rectally. Regarding the antitussive activity, the efficacy of the essential oil administered to animals has been demonstrated by inhalation, being somewhat inferior to codeine.The European Medicines Agency (EMA) approves the traditional use of leaf and eucalyptus essential oil for the relief of cough associated with colds and also the use of essential oil for the relief of localized muscle pain. Commission E approves the use of the leaf for catarrhs of the respiratory tract. Both ESCOP and Commission E consider that the essential oil is indicated, both internally and externally, for the symptomatic treatment of colds of the upper respiratory tract. In addition, externally, for rheumatic conditions.Posology recommended by the EMA
Sheet:
- Infusion (from 12 years old): 1.5-3 g in 150 mL of boiling water, up to 4 times a day.
- Tincture (1: 5, ethanol 60-80%), for adults: 2.5 g, up to 4 times a day.
- Inhalation (from 12 years old): infusion, prepared with 3 g in boiling water, up to 3 times a day.
Essential oil
To calm the cough:
- Oral route (adults, adolescents): 100-200 mg, 2-5 times a day.
- Inhalations: 3-8 drops (adults, adolescents) or 2-4 drops (between 4 and 12 years) in 250 mL of boiling water, 3 times a day.
ESCOP (essential oil)
- Internally: 0.05-0.2 mL / dose; 0.3-0.6 mL daily.
- In capsules: 100-200 mg, 2-5 times a day.
- By inhalation: 12 drops of essential oil in 150 mL of boiling water.
Do not use leaf-based preparations or essential oil in children under 30 months of age, since there is a risk that preparations containing 1,8-cineol may induce laryngospasm, nor in children with a history of seizures (febrile or not). . Complete hot baths are contraindicated in cases of large skin lesions and open wounds, acute skin diseases, high fever, severe infections, severe circulatory disorders and heart failure.Avoid contact with the eyes after handling the essential oil and do not apply on injured or irritated skin. Eucalyptus oil should be used with caution in inflammatory and ulcerative conditions of the gastrointestinal tract.Toxicity studies reported in rats and mice suggested that mice were less susceptible than rats to the toxicity of 1,8-cineole. After gavage of 150 to 2,400 mg/kg/day, a dose-related reduction in the body weight gain and histopathological damage of the liver in male rats was observed. The highest dose of 2,400 mg/kg/day showed 50% of mortality in both sexes. Kristiansen & Madsen [1995] found that the treatment of Wistar rats with 1,8-cineole in feed at doses of 500 and 1,000 mg/kg body weight for 28 days can cause renal lesions
Fennel fruit [1][2]Foeniculum vulgare Miller [12]FennelThe fruits (cremocarps and mericarps) whole and dried varieties:The essential oil of the bitter fennel fruit contains mainly anethole (at least 60%) and fenchone (at least 15%). Other constituents are: estragole (max 5%), anisic aldehyde and some monoterpene hydrocarbons such as: α-pinene, α-phellandrene, and limonene. According to the European Pharmacopoeia, the essential oil content must be at least 40 mL / Kg of dried drug. The fennel fruit also contains flavonoids, hydroxycoumarins, furocoumarins, fixed oil and proteins, among others.The fennel fruit, due to the essential oil, has an expectorant, antiseptic, spasmolytic and carminative action. Significant relaxing activity of the alcoholic extracts of fennel and essential oil at the level of trachea, ileum and uterus. In addition, the ability to counteract the actions of prostaglandins could explain the anti-inflammatory effect on the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract.Fruit: ESCOP and EMA, (traditional use): Symptomatic treatment of mild spasmodic digestive disorders, including abdominal distension and flatulence, and minor spasms associated with menstruation. As an expectorant in case of cough associated with colds. Essential oil (EMA, traditional use): As an expectorant in cough associated with colds. Fruit of sweet or bitter fennel: EMA: - Adults: single dose, 1.5-2.5 g of fennel fruits crushed in 0.25 L of boiling water; leave in infusion 15 min; 3 times a day. - Adolescents over 12 years: Only in case of digestive disorders, the dose of adults. - Children between 4-12 years: Only in transitory mild digestive disorders, average daily dose of 3-5 g of crushed fruits in infusion. Use for a period of less than a week. In addition, the sweet fennel fruit, in adults, can also be administered pulverized at a dose of 400 mg 3 times a day (up to a maximum of 2 g / day). Essential oil (adults): 200 microliters, in a single dose or divided into several doses.Fennel fruit preparations are contraindicated in case of hypersensitivity to the drug or other plants of the Apiáceas family (green anise, caraway, celery, coriander and dill), or anethole. Fennel preparations should not be administered for more than two weeks without consulting the doctor or the pharmacist. Occasionally, allergic skin reactions, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract.Values of the oral LD50 corresponding to 3.8 g/kg b.w. (Opdyke, 1974) and 3.12 g/kg b.w. (von Skramlik, 1959) had been reported for fennel oil in rats, but in a more recent study the oral LD50 was estimated to be 1.326 g/kg b.w. (Ostad et al., 2001). The dermal LD50 in rabbits was estimated to be higher than 5,000 mg/kg (Opdyke, 1974). Oral LD50 values per kg b.w. were determined for trans-anethole as 1.8-5 g in mice, 2.1-3.2 g in rats, and 2.16 g in guinea pigs; i.p. LD50 values for trans-anethole were determined as 0.65-1.41 g/kg b.w. in mice and 0.9-2.67 g/kg b.w. in rats (Lin, 1991).
Frangula bark[99][100]FrangulaRhamnus frangula L.the cortex of stems and branches subjected to storage for one year or to treatment with hot air before use.The active principles are constituted by hydroxyanthracene glycosides, mainly anthraquinones it also contains fissure and crisofanol, in free and monoglycosylated form. 2-acetyl-1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene and its 8-O-glucoside, tannins and small amounts of peptide alkaloidsLaxative due to the hydrohanthracenic heterosidesThe fructic cortex and its extracts are used in the short-term treatment of occasional constipation. This indication is approved by the EMA as "well-established use" for the drug and standardized preparations.Recommended EMA dosage for adults, 12 years of age and older: Drugs or preparations with a content equivalent to 15-30 mg of hydroxanthracene derivatives calculated as glucofrangulin A taken in a single dose at night. It is usually sufficient to take it up to two or three times in a week.Known hypersensitivity, obstruction, stenosis, intestinal atony, appendicitis, inflammatory colon diseases, abdominal pains of unknown origin and severe dehydration with loss of water and electrolytes.Occasionally spasms and abdominal pains, especially in patients with irritable bowel. There may be a change in the color of the urine, Pseudomelanosis coli (pigmentation of the intestinal mucosa), especially in case of chronic administration; usually disappears after a few months of ceasing this.Acute toxicity data are available for emodin in mice. The intraperitoneal LD50 (dimethylsulfoxide solvent) is 35 mg/kg; the oral LD50 (dimethylsulfoxide solvent) is greater than 1,000 mg/kg
Fumitory aerial parts 86]FumitoryFumaria officinalis L.Dried aerial part (Fumariae herba), whole or fragmented, harvested in full bloom.Isoquinoleinic alkaloids (0.3-1.3%) According to the European Pharmacopoeia must contain at least 0.40% of total alkaloids, expressed as protopin and calculated with reference to the dried drug. Other components: flavonols heterosides, aliphatic acids, derivatives of hydroxycinnamic acids: caffeic, cumaric and ferulic.regulates bile flow It also has a moderate antispasmodic effect on the upper digestive tract. It also has diuretic and depurative properties. is attributed spasmolytic activity, digestive, choleretic, collagenous and slightly laxative and diuretic. possesses antioxidant activity, antifungal and selective inhibitory properties against Parainfluenza virus.The European Medicines Agency (EMA) approves its traditional use to increase biliary flow and improve symptoms of indigestion, such as feeling fullness, flatulence and slow digestion.Posology proposed by EMA for adults and the elderly:
- Infusion (2 g / 250 mL of water), daily dose: 2-4 g, in 2-3 doses.
- Drug powder: 220 mg / dose. Daily dose: up to 1,100 mg.
- Dry extract (3.5-5: 1, aqueous extraction): 250 mg / dose, up to 4 times a day.
- Fluid extract (1: 1, ethanol 25% V / V): 0.5-2 mL per dose. Daily dose: 2-4 mL.
- Tincture (1: 5, ethanol 45% V / V): 0.5-1 mL per dose (1-4 mL / day).
- Fresh plant juice: 3.5-4 g / day.
Do not use, without medical supervision, in cases of biliary obstruction, cholangitis, gallstones and other biliary or hepatitis conditions.None known.
If adverse reactions occur, a doctor or a qualified health care practitioner should be consulted.
Hawthorn Leaf and Flower [29] Hawthorn
Crataegus sp.The leaf and flowerThe main components of the sumidad of hawthorn are flavonoids and proanthocyanidins.
The major flavonoids according to the part of the drug (leaves, flowers).
Other components: Caffeic and chlorogenic acids, aromatic amines (phenylethylamine), pentacyclic triterpene acids: crataegolic, ursolic, oleanolic, traces of essential oil, mineral salts, especially potassium.
The majority of experimental studies have been carried out with standardized hydroalcoholic extracts, sometimes standardized in their content in oligomeric procyanidins (18.75%) and / or flavonoids (2.2%).Indications approved by ESCOP:
Preparations based on hydroalcoholic extracts: Cardiac insufficiency grade II (NYHA).
Tisanes and other preparations different from the previous ones: Alterations of the heart rate of nervous cause. Coadjuvant in the treatment of alterations of cardiac or circulatory function.
Indications approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA), as a traditional use:
Relieve temporary heart symptoms (for example, palpitations, percepcoon of the heartbeat) due to mild anxiety, after having been ruled out the existence of other pathologies.
Symptoms of anxiety and as an aid to falling asleep.
ESCOP:
Preparations based on hydroalcoholic extracts (with extract-drug ratio 1: 4-7, and a flavonoid content greater than 2%, expressed as hyperoside or 3% proanthocyanidins): 169-900 mg / day.
Infusion prepared with 1-1.5 g of drug, three times a day.
EMA (adiltos and elders):
a) Cardiac symptoms due to anxiety (adults and the elderly):
- Infusion: 1-2 g in 150 mL, up to 4 times a day (maximum 6 g).
- Powder: 190-350 mg per dose (570-1750 mg / day)
- Dry extract (4-7: 1, 70% ethanol): 80-300 mg per dose (240-900 mg / day).
- Dry extract (4-7: 1, ethanol 45-70%): 80-450 mg per dose (240-900 mg / day).
If, after six weeks of treatment, the symptoms persist or malignant edema appears, the doctor should be consulted. If dyspnea or pain appears in the precordial region radiating to the arms, upper abdomen or neck, an immediate medical examination is advisable.3000 mg/kg could be given to rats and mice by the oral route without causing clinical signs or death. By the intraperitoneal route, sedation, piloerection, dyspnea, and tremor were recorded in both the mouse and the rat; an LD50 value of 1170 mg/kg was calculated in the mouse and 750 mg/kg in the rat.
Hemlock fruit [84]hemlockConium maculatum
The fruits.Alkaloids derived from piperidine: conine or cicutin, γ-conicein, conhydrin, N-methylconiin, conhydron. Ripe fruits contain more than 1.5% of alkaloids, especially conhydrin (concentration varies greatly depending on harvesting time); in the vegetative parts the main alkaloid is γ-conicein, especially in the early stages of growth (its content becomes multiplied 6-8).Antispasmodic, analgesic, by its action on the pneumogastric and sensory nerve endings it was used in the treatment of neuralgias.Popularly it has been used: Cataplasma of fresh plant or hemlock oil. Cataplasma resolutivo and analgesic: 10 g of hemlock powder with 250 gr of crushed carrot, applied on the inflammatory focus.Pregnancy, breastfeeding, children.Physical or mental disorders due to suppression of sexual desire or by continence or prolonged sexual abstinence. Glandular or ganglionic or tissue hypertrophies and indurations; hard as stones; especially by graumatisms, bruises, blows or falls.
Horsetail [14]
Horsetail
Equisetum arvense
Sterile stems, whole or cut and dried (Equiseti herba).Abundant mineral salts (15-20% of the ashes), especially silicic (5-10% of the dry weight) of potassium, magnesium, aluminum, manganese. It also contains sterols (β-sitosterol, campesterol), chlorogenic acid, chicorésico, caffeic and phenolic acids: cinnamic, dicafeoiltartaric and 5-O-caffeoilshikimic (the latter is abundant in the spring and then disappears). Abundant flavonoids (apigenin glucosides, quercetin, luteolin, kenpferol), highly variable depending on the origin of the plant. Alkaloids: palustrin and nicotine in small amounts.
The European Pharmacopoeia establishes a minimum content of 0.3% of total flavonoids, expressed as isoquercetoside with respect to the dried drug.
 Mild diuretic
Traditionally, it has also been considered hemostatic, healing and remineralizing.
Some authors affirm that the silicic compounds contribute to maintain the structure of the fundamental substance of the connective tissue (collagen) and that it interacts with the metabolism of phosphates and calcium, however these effects have not been demonstrated
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) approves its traditional use, based on prolonged use, as a diuretic for "washing the urinary tract", in the treatment of mild urinary conditions. Commission E also includes the treatment of post-traumatic edemas and as an aid in the healing of torpid wounds and ulcers, in topical use.

Traditionally it has been used in the form of tisanes to increase diuresis, frequently as a coadjuvant in the treatment of overweight; Due to its silicon content, it has been used to promote fracture consulation.
Dosage recommended by the EMA (adults and adolescents over 12 years of age):

- Infusion: 2-3 g in 250 mL, 3-4 times a day.

- Powder: 570 mg, 3-4 times a day.

- Fresh juice (1: 1.6-2): 20 mL, 3-4 times a day.

- Fluid extract (1: 4-5, ethanol 31.5%): 20 drops, 3-4 times a day.
In case of hypertension or serious heart disease, dirietics should only be used under medical supervision.The toxicity of this species in humans is unknown (it has a relatively widespread popular use), but its toxic effects are well known in herbivorous animals, especially horses; the intoxication is severe and presents with symptoms similar to those produced by an acute deficiency of vitamin B1 (motor incoordination).
Hungarian camomile[103][104]
Hungarian camomile
Chamomilla recutita
Dried floral chapters (Matricariae flos).The main constituents of the floral chapters of chamomile are the essential oil.
The essence (0.4-1.5%) contains about 50% of the sesquiterpenes (-) - α-bisabolol and its oxides A and B, bisabolone oxide, cis- and trans-en-in-dicycloether ( up to 25%) and camazulene (1-15%), which is formed from the matricine (sesquiterpene lactone) during the distillation. Among the flavonoids, mainly glycosides of apigenin have been identified, such as 7-glucosyl-apigenin, and other flavones and flavonols, which constitute up to 8% of the drug. Other components are: mucilaginous polysaccharides (up to 10%), coumarins (umbelliferone and herniarine), phenolic acids and sesquiterpene lactones (matricine).
Common chamomile has anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, anti-ulcer, carminative, digestive, bactericidal, fungicidal and mild sedative, due to the different active principles of the drug.
Flavonoids are also responsible, in part, for the antimicrobial action.
Topically, flavones exert a local anti-inflammatory action. In particular, in the croton oil-induced mouse dermatitis model, apigenin and luteolin have a potency analogous to that of indomethacin.
Indications approved by ESCOP

- Internally, in the symptomatic treatment of digestive disorders, such as: mild gastrointestinal spasms, inflammatory states, epigastric distension, flatulence and nausea.

- Topically, in inflammations, irritations and infections of the skin and mucous membranes, including the oropharyngeal cavity and the gums (rinses), the respiratory tract (inhalations) and the ano-genital area (baths and ointments).
Adults: In infusion: 3 g of drug in 150 mL of hot water, 3-4 times a day. Fluid extract (45-60% ethanol): single dose of 1-4 mL. Dry extract: 50-300 mg, 3 times a day.

Elderly: Same dose as in adults.

Children: The same proportions as in adults according to the age and weight of the patient.

- External use:

In compresses, washes or gargles: 3-10% m / V infusion or 1% V / V fluid extract or 5% V / V tincture.

In bathrooms: 5 g of drug, or 0.8 g of fluid extract, per liter of water.

In solid and semi-solid preparations: hydroalcoholic extracts corresponding to 3-10% m / m of the drug.

In inhalations: 10-20 mL of fluid extract per liter of hot water.
Do not apply in the form of baths in case of open wounds, extensive skin conditions, acute skin inflammations or high fever.Common chamomile has a much lower allergenic potential than other chamomiles. Cross reactions may occur with other species that possess sesquiterpene lactones.

Very rarely, the fresh plant can cause contact dermatitis.
Ipecacuana root [87]IpecacuanhaCephaelis ipecacuanhaThe rootIsoquinoleinic alkaloids (2-2.5% in Rio ipeca, 2-3.5% in Cartagena): emetin (60-75% of the total alkaloids in the ipeca of Rio, 30-50% in the Cartagena), cefepine, psychotrine, methyl ester of psychotrine, emetamine and others.At very low doses, preparations of ipeca produce an expectorant effect, with great secretolytic action (emetina, cefelina) and antidiarréico. At higher doses it has a emetizing action (emetina). Emetin also has anthelmintic and amebicidal actionThe use of the syrup of ipeca as emetizante in case of intoxications is less frequent because its beneficial influence on the evolution of intoxication does not seem to be clear.Syrup of ipecac, as inducer of vomiting should be used at the following dosage:
- Children 6-12 months: 5-10 mL.
- Children of 1-12 years: 15 mL.
- Adults and children over 12 years: 15-30 mL.
Pregnancy, breastfeeding, children, elderly, heart disease, hypotension.
The use of ipeca syrup as an emetic, in the event of poisoning, may interfere with the performance of activated charcoal and other antidotes.
Syrup of ipecac is contraindicated in children younger than six months
The syrup of ipecac may have adverse effects on the gastrointestinal tract include nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, in some cases bloody diarrhea. If vomiting does not occur, emetin is absorbed, and cardiotoxic effects may occur
Lemon verbena leavesLemon verbena Aloysia triphylla
Leaves.Essential oil rich in citral (30%), with carbides (limonene), terpene alcohols (linalool, terpineol), cineole, a sesquiterpene aldehyde: caryophyllene; furocoumarins. Flavonoids.Hierbaluisa is an excellent organoleptic corrector of aroma and flavor. It is traditionally considered digestive, carminative and spasmolytic. It has also been used as a mild tranquilizer, although it seems that this action is due only to the mild relaxing effect that a hot infusion can produce.Popular uses: dyspepsia, meteorism, gastrointestinal spasms.Infusion: one dessert spoon per cup, three or more per day.
Lime flower[88]Tilia sp.Linden TreeThe European Pharmacopoeia admits as linden flower (Tiliae flos) the entire dried inflorescence of Tilia platyphyllos Scop., Of T. cordata Miller, of its hybrid T. europaea L. (= T. x vulgaris Heyne), or a mixture of both .Inflorescence: mucilages (10%). Phenolic compounds: phenolic acids, proanthocyanidols and especially flavonoids (1%): quercitides, astragaloside, rutoside, hyperoside. Traces of essential oil (0.02%).It has been traditionally used as a mild tranquilizer, soothing cough and diaphoretic in the case of febrile conditions (colds, flu syndrome).The EMA approves its traditional use for symptomatic relief of the cold and as a mild tranquilizer. So far there are no clinical data to support their traditional uses.Posology proposed by the EMA; Adolescents, adults and the elderly: Infusion: 1.5 g in 150 mL of water, 2-4 times a day. Fluid extract (1: 1, 25% ethanol extraction solvent): 2 mL, 1-2 times a day. Tincture (1: 5, ethanol 45%): 1 mL, 1-2 times a day. Children between 4-12 years: Infusion: 1 g in 150 mL of water, 2-4 times a day. In case of cold, the treatment should start with the first symptomsThe safety of its use in pregnancy, lactation or in children under 4 years has not been described.Along with its needed effects, ethinyl estradiol / norethindrone may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.
Lycopodium[89]Licopodio
Lycopodium clavatum
spores.Aerial sum: oil (50%): glycerides of lycopodolytic acids, phytosterols; carbohydrates; organic acids: caffeine; resin; sporonin (cellulose derivative). One hundred alkaloids (0.2%) have been isolated: lycopodine, dihydrolycopodin, acetyldipidrolicopodine, licoflexin, licodoline. Flavonoids: chrysoeryi, luteoloside, apigenoside.Aerial features: spasmolytic, diuretic and laxative (internal use).
Spores: Currently in disuse, it was used as protector of the epidermis (topical use) and as excipient for dragee production. Sporopolenin, a polymer isolated from lycopodium spores, has been shown to block Candida rugosa lipase.
Whole plant: to increase diuresis in inflammations of the urinary tract and to favor the elimination of grit (urinary lavage therapy). Other popular uses: gastrointestinal spasms, hepatitis, hepatobiliary dyskinesias. Spores: Stings, skin irritations, intervertebral hyperhidrosis.spores:infusion (1.5 g per cup), 2-3 shots a day.Avoid prolonged use. Due to the presence of alkaloids, it is advisable to use them only under facultative control.It can cause lack of self-confidence, feelings of inferiority and insecurity, and the possibility of a person developing bullying behavior that acts as a cover-up for these feelings of being "lesser than." A person can be bossy and dominant and frankly unpleasant to those who know him better, as the family, however, act submissive and fearful in public.
Mentha pulegium[90]PennyroyalMentha pulegium L.FloweryEssential oil (0.5-1%) where R - (+) - pulegone (70-90%) predominates.It is popularly attributed a tonic-aperitive, digestive, carminative, cholagogue, spasmolytic, expectorant, diuretic, antiseptic, cicatrizant and insect repellent effect. The essential oil has emenagogue properties.Popular uses: hiposecretory dyspepsia, gastrointestinal spasms, meteorism, hepatobiliary dyskinesia, cholecystitis, headaches, wounds.Infusion is the common form of administration. Add a spoonful of dessert per cup and infuse for 10 minutes. Take 2 to 3 cups a day, before, during, or after meals.No contraindications, side effects or interactions for the infusion have been described. Several undesirable individual effects have been cited, such as contact urticaria in people who manipulate the plant or intoxications with the taking of high doses of essential oil, such as death due to liver failure of a woman who used it for abortive purposes. The toxic effects are related to its content of the essential oil in pulegone, a substance that is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1 / 2), transforming into menofuran, a metabolite with greater hepatotoxic power.SEE CONTRADICTIONS
Milk thistle [11]
Milk thistle
Carduus marianus
According to the European Pharmacopoeia the drug (Silybi mariani fructus) is constituted by the ripe dried fruit, devoid of the papo of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner.The European Pharmacopoeia establishes a minimum content of 1.5% silymarin, expressed in silibinin.
The milk thistle fruit contains silymarin (1.5-3%), a mixture of various flavanolignans found especially in the tegument. The main components of the mixture are: silibina (= silibinina), silicristina and silidianina. Also found are the 3-deoxiderivatives of silidianin (called silimonin) and silicristin, as well as isosilicristin, isosilybin and its 3-deoxiderivative silandrin, the 3-deoxiderivatives silihermin, neosilihermines A and B, 2,3-dehydrosilybin and the tri - tetra- and pentamers of silybin (silibinomers).
Antihepatotoxic and antioxidant actions. Most experimental and clinical studies have been conducted with flavanolignans, especially silymarin and silybin.
- Antihepatotoxic action. It has been shown that silymarin acts directly on liver cells as an antagonist against various hepatotoxic agents: phalloidin and alpha-amanitin (toxin of Amanita phalloides), lanthanides, carbon tetrachloride, galactosamine, thioacetamide, as well as the hepatotoxic virus FV3, characteristic of cold-blooded animals. Antioxidant action Silymarin and silybin have been shown in in vivo and in vitro studies to have antioxidant and free radical scavenger activity in the production of oxygenated species (ROS) and at the level of peroxidation.
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) approves its traditional use for the relief of dyspepsia and functional digestive disorders of biliary origin.

According to Commission E, the drug can be used in dispépsicos disorders and preparations containing a minimum of 70% silymarin, in liver damage of toxic origin, as an adjuvant in the treatment of chronic liver inflammation and liver cirrhosis induced by alcohol, drugs or toxins .
Dosage recommended by the EMA (for adults and the elderly):

- Infusion: 3-5 g in 100 mL, 2-3 times a day, before meals.

- Powder: 300-600 mg, 2-3 times a day, before meals (up to 1,800 mg / day).

- Dry extract (20-70: 1, acetone solvent): 82-239 mg, 2-3 times a day, before meals (up to 478 mg / day).

- Dry extract (30-40: 1, ethanol 96%): 200 / dose, one a day.
Hypersensitivity to the drug or to other species of the Compound family.In sporadic cases, mild gastrointestinal symptoms such as dry mouth, nausea, upset stomach, gastric irritation and diarrhea may occur; headache.
Milkthistle Fruit[91][92]Milk thistleSilybum marianum (L.) GaertnerEMA: the drug (Silybi mariani fructus) is constituted by the ripe dried fruit, devoid of the papo of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner.EMA: establishes a minimum content of 1.5% silymarin, expressed in silibinin. The main components of the mixture are: silibina (= silibinina), silicristina and silidianina. Flavonoids Other components of the drug are: fatty oil (20-30%), with a high proportion of linoleic acid (60%), oleic acid (30%) and palmitic acid (9%) in their triglycerides; tocopherol (0.04%); sterols (0.6%), such as cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and sistosterol; proteins (25-30%) and traces of mucilageAntihepatotoxic and antioxidant actions. Flavanolignans have shown anti-inflammatory and antiallergic action both in vitro and in vivo. Silybin has demonstrated antitumor activity in in vitro studies. Silymarin has demonstrated anti-cholesterolemic activity in in vivo experiments and silybin anti-cholestatic activity.EMA: approves its traditional use for the relief of dyspepsia and functional digestive disorders of biliary origin. According to Commission E, the drug can be used in dispépsicos disorders and preparations containing a minimum of 70% silymarin, in liver damage of toxic origin, as an adjuvant in the treatment of chronic liver inflammation and liver cirrhosis induced by alcohol, drugs or toxins . The WHO also indicates popular uses lacking pharmacological or clinical trials: amenorrhea, diabetes, hay fever, uterine bleeding and varicose veins.Commission E (except another prescription): average daily dose of 12-15 g of drug. For the different preparations, dose equivalent to 200-400 mg of silymarin, calculated as silybin.OMS (except another prescription): average daily dose of 12-15 g of drug; In standardized preparations, 200-400 mg of silymarin, calculated as silybin. In Germany there is a preparation for parenteral dministration of sodium hemisuccinate silybin for the treatment of poisoning due to the ingestion of Amanita phalloides.Hypersensitivity to the drug or to other species of the Compound family.In sporadic cases, mild gastrointestinal symptoms such as dry mouth, nausea, upset stomach, gastric irritation and diarrhea may occur; headache.In a 12-month study, rats receiving silymarin 50, 500 and 2500mg/kg showed no evidence of toxicity after urine analysis and post-mortem studies. Similar results were obtained for dogs. No evidence of ante-postnatal toxicity in animals was reported. Silymarin did not affect fertility in rats
Olive leaf[93]Olea europaea L.OliveLeavesHeterosides secoiridoides: oleuropenoside (60-90 mg / g), 11-dimethyloleoeuropeoside, methyl diester (7,11) of the oleoside, ligustrósido, oleurósido; phenylethanoids: hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol. Dryidoidoid aldehydes: oleaceine. Flavonoids: hesperidoside, rutoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, quercetoside, kempferol. Sugars: mannitol, glucose.
Herbal substance or comminuted herbal substance as herbal tea for oral use.
Powdered dried leaves in solid dosage forms for oral use.
The pharmaceutical form should be described by the European Pharmacopoeia full standard term.



used to promote urinary and digestive elimination functions






Herbal substance
Herbal tea: 10 g of fresh leaves or 5 g of dried leaves in 150 ml of water as a decoction 2 times daily (morning and evening)
Decoction time: allow to simmer to reach 100 ml of decoction.
i) Herbal substance and ii) herbal preparation
Dried leaves or a) comminuted dried leaves for infusion:
Single dose: 6–10 g up to 3 times daily.



Hypersensitivity to the active substance.
Herbal substance and herbal preparation a)
Conditions where a reduced fluid intake is recommended (e.g. severe cardiac or renal disease).



None known.
If adverse reactions occur, a doctor or a qualified health care practitioner should be consulted.


Leaf methanol extract (no further specification) from O. europaea subsp.africana (Mill.) P.S. was studied in in vivo mice antidiarrheal models. LD50 in mice of 3475 mg/kg p.o determined during investigation of the extract testing it for antidiarrheal activity (Amabeoku and Bamuamba 2010).
Onion bulb [71]OnionAllium cepa
The bulb.The fresh bulb contains abundant fructosans (10-40%), with a low degree of polymerization, heterogenous polysaccharides, flavonoids (quercetin glucosides, especially in the red varieties), saponósidos (furostanol glucósidos), sterols and sulfur compounds among which the L-cysteine sulfoxide.antibacterial, lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, inhibitor of platelet aggregation.Indications clinically approved: loss of appetite, prevention of atherosclerosis. Reduced glycemia in diabetes I and II.
Other traditional uses: asthma, wound disinfection.
Recommended by Commission E (unless otherwise stated): 50 g / day of fresh onion, 20 g / day of powder or equivalent doses of other preparations.
100g / day of fresh onion, significantly reduce fasting glucose in patients with diabetes I and II
There are no contraindications to using allium cepaMay cause contact dermatitis. Administration of high doses of onion (500 mg/kg) resulted in apparent histological changes in lung and liver tissues of rats and it was lethal to two out of eight rats. All of the rats receiving the high dose of onion exhibited signs of dehydration and consumed large quantities of water during the experimental period.
Opium seedOpium poppyPapaver somniferum
capsules still green and seedsThe active principles are alkaloids (10-20%), located in the laticiferous, being the most important and most important morphine (10-12%). Other important alkaloids are codeine and thebaine, noscapine or narcotine and papaverine; and less important: narcotoline, laudadine, laudanosine, etc.Is used as morphine and codeine: Morphine the most important effects occur at the central level and in the gastrointestinal tract, although it also exerts numerous effects of lesser transcendence in other systems. It is effective in acute and chronic pain. Codeine: The fundamental action is antitussive because it acts directly on the center of the cough located at the medullar levelMorphine: Severe painful processes, immediate postoperative pain, intense or malignant chronic pain, pain associated with acute myocardial infarction.
Codeine: Codeine is a drug capable of producing different actions. It is used, usually in combination with other medicines, to eliminate the cough. It is also able to calm the pain.
Vegetable drug (maximum dose / day) by mouth:
Opium extract: 0.1-0.25 g
Opium powder: 0.2-0.5 g
Opium tincture: 2-5 g
Herbal substance and herbal preparation a)Morphine: Adverse effects are, in general, frequent and may be important. The most frequent are: nausea, vomiting, dizziness, feeling faint, constipation, drowsiness, disorientation, sweating and euphoria.
Codeine: It is important to respect the schedule. Codeine should be used with caution in elderly and debilitated persons. Caution is advised in its use and initiation of treatment with smaller doses and longer intervals of administration
Origanum flower[111]Wild marjoram
Origanum vulgare
The flowering tops.Essential oil (0.1-1%), rich in thymol, carvacrol (up to 90%), β-bisabolene, caryophyllene, p-cymene, borneol, linalool, linalyl acetate, α and β-pinenes, α-terpinene . Phenolcarboxylic acids: caffeic, chlorogenic, rosmarinic. Flavonoids: derivatives of apigenin, luteolin, kempferol, diosmetin. Tannins Bitter beginnings Triterpenes: derivatives of ursolic and oleanolic acids.Popularly attributed properties as: appetizer, digestive, carminative, choleretic, spasmolytic, expectorant, antiseptic of the respiratory tract, general tonic and diuretic. Externally it is considered analgesic, healing, antiseptic and antifungal.The Commission E recommends avoiding its prescription by considering its therapeutic usefulness insufficiently proven.
Popular uses: inappetence, hyposecretory dyspepsia, meteorism, gastrointestinal spasms, diarrhea; hepatobiliary dyskinesias, cholecystitis, bronchitis, asthma, emphysema; amenorrhea, dysmenorrhoea. In topical use: pruritus, rhinitis, otitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis, odontalgia, osteoarticular inflammations, wounds, ulcers, dermatomycosis, insect bites.
Internal way:
- Infusion: one dessert spoon per cup. Infuse ten minutes. Three cups a day, before or after meals.
- Fluid extract (1: 1): 30 to 50 drops, three times a day.
Topical use:
- Infusion: 50 g / l, in the form of compresses, lotions, gargles or mouthwash.
- Essential oil: in the form of liniment, ointment, oleate or alcoholaturo.
Conditions where a reduced fluid intake is recommended (e.g. severe cardiac or renal disease).Parenterally, depending on the dose, echinacea preparations can cause short-term febrile reactions, nausea and vomiting. Oral effects have not been reported orally. Very rarely, in sensitive individuals, topical allergic reactions may appear.
In treatments over 8 weeks, leukopenia may appear.
A single-dose toxicity test showed a large margin of safety of an O. majorana extract (ethanol 96%, DER not available). Single doses in a range of 2.5 to 15 g/kg bw did not produce apparent toxic effects. LD50 in mice was estimated in 10.625 g/kg bw (Al-Howiriny et al., 2009).
Passiflora[94]Maypop, PassionflowerPassiflora incarnata L.The drug is constituted by the aerial parts that are dried, fragmented or cut (Passiflorae herba).Flavonoids (up to 2.5%) According to the European Pharmacopoeia it must contain not less than 1.5% of flavonoids expressed as vitexin, calculated with respect to dried drug. The presence of maltol (2-methyl-3-hydroxypyrone) has also been described ) in 0.05%. Chairs of indole alkaloids derived from β-carboline. Traces of cyanogenic heterosides and phytosterols.Anxiolytic, tranquilizing and spasmolytic activity.The European Medicines Agency (EMA) highlights the usefulness of this drug, based on traditional use, to relieve mild symptoms of mental stress and to fall asleep. According to ESCOP, it is indicated in cases of restlessness, restlessness and irritability with difficulty in falling asleep.ESCOP: Daily dose in adults: 0.5-2 g of drug; 2.5 g of drug in infusion; 1-4 mL of tincture or other preparations at equivalent doses. In children from 3 to 12 years old: only under medical supervision, dosage proportional to that of the adult according to body weight.It can cause drowsiness. It can reduce the ability to drive and operate machinery. The EMA discourages its use in children under 12 years and indicates that, although no interactions have been described, it is advisable to avoid its concomitant use with synthetic tranquillizers such as benzodiazepines, unless it is done with medical control.In very rare cases, possible hypersensitivity reactions to the drug.Hydroethanolic extract (not further specified): male rats, oral, 10 ml/kg body weight = 5 g/kg dried herb, 21 days, no change in weight, rectal temperature and motor coordination (ESCOP, 2003). An oral daily dose of 600 mg/kg for 4 weeks did not give any toxic symptoms in rats (Weniger & Anton, 1996).
Passionflower aerial parts[10]
Passionflower [10]
Passiflora incarnata
The drug is constituted by the aerial parts that are dried, fragmented or cut (Passiflorae herba).Flavonoids (up to 2.5%), of which the di-C-glycosides escaftósido and isoescaftósido and the 2 "-O-glucosides of C-heterosides isovitexina and isoorientina stand out, in a lesser proportion vitexina, orientina, and others. According to the European Pharmacopoeia it must contain not less than 1.5% of flavonoids expressed as vitexin, calculated with respect to the dried drug.

The presence of maltol (2-methyl-3-hydroxypyrone) by 0.05% has also been described.
Anxiolytic, tranquilizing and spasmolytic activity.

In a study in experimental animals, the effect of lyophilized aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts was evaluated, as well as the main isolated phytoconstituents (flavonoids, alkaloids and maltol). As a result, it was obtained that the hydroalcoholic extract exerted an anxiolytic effect and that the aqueous one acted as a sedative, while the tested phytoconstituents were not active.
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) highlights the usefulness of this drug, based on traditional use, to relieve mild symptoms of mental stress and to fall asleep.

According to ESCOP, it is indicated in cases of restlessness, restlessness and irritability with difficulty in falling asleep.
EMA (adolescents over 12 years old and adults):

- Infusion (1-2 g in 150 mL of water), 1-4 times a day.

- Powder: 0.5-2g, 1-4 times a day.

- Fluid extract (1: 8, ethanol 25% V / V): 2-4 mL, up to 4 times a day.

- Fluid extract (1: 8, ethanol 45% V / V): 2 mL, up to 3 times a day.

- Fluid extract (1: 3.6, ethanol 60% V / V): 1 mL, 3-5 times a day.

- Fluid extract (1: 1, ethanol 25% V / V): 1 mL, 3-5 times a day
there are no contraindicationsIn very rare cases, possible hypersensitivity reactions to the drug.Hydroethanolic extract (not further specified): male rats, oral, 10 ml/kg body weight = 5 g/kg dried herb, 21 days, no change in weight, rectal temperature and motor coordination (ESCOP, 2003). An oral daily dose of 600 mg/kg for 4 weeks did not give any toxic symptoms in rats (Weniger & Anton, 1996)
Peppermint leaf [31] [32]Peppermint
Mentha spicataThe dried, whole or sliced leaves are used.The mint leaf contains essential oil (1-3%), rich in menthol (35-55%) and its stereoisomers (neomentol, isomentol), menthone and menthol esters, which are accompanied by menofuran and other monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in small proportions. Also, flavonoids, both aglycones and glycosides; tannins; acids, phenols and triterpenes.The mint leaf possesses a direct spasmolytic action on the smooth musculature of the digestive, choleretic and carminative tracts. These actions are mainly due to the essential oil, which also exerts a decongestant nasal and expectorant effect, antipruritic, antirheumatic and antibacterial. The essence, applied topically, produces a slight analgesia.
Flavonoids and phenolic acids also participate in the spasmolytic, choleretic and carminative actions of the drug and are responsible for its antioxidant activity.
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) approves the following therapeutic indications:
Leaf: traditional use (based on prolonged use) in the treatment of digestive disorders, such as dyspepsia and flatulence.
Essential oil:
Well-established use: orally, for the symptomatic treatment of digestive disorders, such as mild spasms, dyspepsia, flatulence and abdominal pain, especially in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and, externally, for the symptomatic relief of tension-type headache mild.
Traditional use: relief of cough and cold, rheumatic and muscular pain, pruritus, topical application.
Recommendations of the EMA:
Sheet, traditional use:
- Infusion: adults and elderly: 1.5-3 g of drug in 150 mL of water, three times a day (daily dose: 4.5-9 g); adolescents: 1-2 g of drug in 150 mL of water, three times a day (3-6 g / day); children between 4-11 years: 1-1.5 g of drug in 150 mL of water, three times a day (3-4.5 g / day).
Duration of treatment: 2 weeks. If symptoms persist, consult a health professional.
Essential oil:
Well established use:
- Internal route, for adults, elderly and adolescents: 0.2-0.4 mL, up to three times a day in enteric coated capsules, before meals. Children between 8-12 years old: 0.2 mL, up to three times a day. Duration of treatment: two weeks; If the symptoms persist, it can last up to 3 months.
The essential oil should not be applied on wounds or irritated skin.
Do not administer, or topically apply the essence of mint to children under four years, to children with a history of seizures (febrile or not), or to people with respiratory allergies or with known hypersensitivity to peppermint essential oil or menthol. Especially, the application of preparations containing mint essence on the face, particularly the nose, and on the chest of children should be avoided.
Patients with gastroesophageal reflux (heartburn) should avoid peppermint leaf preparations, as it may increase acidity.
Excessive inhalation of menthol products as well as an oral overdose can produce undesirable effects, such as: headache, mental confusion, nausea, diarrhea, rectal burning, anorexia, bradycardia, anaphylactic shock, erythema, ataxia, seizures and other CNS disorders, probably due to the presence of menthol. The essential oil can produce, in sensitive people, nervousness and insomnia. The frequency of occurrence of these reactions is unknown.
A dry peppermint leaf extract was given to 12 mice as a single dose at 4000mg/kg body weight. None of the animals died or showed macroscopic signs of toxicity over a 7-day period (Della Logia et al, 1990). Short-term toxicity studies demonstrated that peppermint oil (40 and 100 mg/kg b.w. day) and
pulegone (80 and 160mg/kg b.w.day) induced brain lesions in rats at oral doses. The oral LD50 of peppermint oil U.S.P. in fasted Wistar male rats after 24 h was found to be 4441±653 mg/kg. After 48h was 2426 mg/kg.
Pinus budsPine [23] [24]Pinus elliottiiThe buds, leaves and young branches- Essential oil of pine: contains 1.5-5% of bornil acetate.
Bark: proanthocyanidinic oligomers (5%), turpentine (essential oil, 15-30%, resin, 70-85%), tannins.
- Pine shoots are used internally as expectorants and mucolytics; externally as adjuvants in the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions.
- The essential oil is used as mucolytic and expectorant.
- Turpentine is used as a rubefacient.
Indications approved by the Commission E:
- Pine buds: catarrhal diseases of the upper respiratory tract; in topical use muscular pains, neuralgia.
- Essential oil of pine leaves: affections of the respiratory tree; topically: rheumatic conditions, neuralgia.
- Purified turpentine oil: chronic bronchial affections with abundant mucus (internal and external use); rheumatic complaints and neuralgia (topical use)
Dosage recommended by Commission E, except for another prescription:
- Yolks: 2-3 g / day of drug or equivalent preparations. For external use: liquid or semi-solid preparations of extract, corresponding to 20-50%.
- Pine oil: several drops on hot water (inhalations); several drops on the area to be treated, in liquid or semisolid preparations in a concentration of 10-50% (topical use).
- Purified turpentine oil: several drops on hot water (inhalations); several drops on the area to be treated, in liquid or semisolid preparations in a concentration of 10-50% (topical use).
- Essential oil of pine leaves, purified turpentine oil: Hypersensitivity to essential oil, pregnancy, lactation, children under six years of age, allergic asthma, patients with gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers, neurological diseases (oral essential oil). Children under six years, known hypersensitivity to these or other essential oils, allergic asthma (essential oil, turpentine, in topical use).Essential oils can produce intense local flushing and increase the intensity of bronchospasms.
According to the numerous clinical trials carried out, pycnogenol is well tolerated. On rare occasions it can lead to the onset of nausea, headache and vertigo.
In vitro and in vivo, the catechin and the oligomeric anthocyanidins of the pycnogenol, bind to the insoluble elastin, giving rise to a greater resistance of the elastin to the degradation by the elastases.
Pulsatilla leaf[97]Pasque-FlowerAnemone pulsatilla L.Leaf, flower.Heteroside: ranunculina, which is easily transformed into protoanemonine and later into anemonine. Sterols and tannins.Protoanemonin has antibacterial, antitussive, antispasmodic action, especially at the uterine and digestive levels.its use is not recommended.

It was used for the treatment of spasms at uterine or gastrointestinal level, spasmodic, dysmenorrhoea and hemicranea cough.
Pregnancy, lactation, liver diseases.The fresh plant, applied topically, can produce a vesicant effect.
The fresh plant contains anemonin and protoanemonin, which cause loss of sensitivity and depression of the respiratory and cardiac nervous centers. Although these substances disappear with the desiccation, we recommend abstaining from their prescription in ponderal doses.
Roman chamomile flower [13] [19] [20]
Roman chamomile
Chamaemelum nobile (L.)

Dried floral chapters (Chamomillae romanae flos) of the cultivated variety of double flower.Aceite esencial (0,6-2,4%), constituido principalmente por ésteres de los ácidos angélico, metacrílico, tíglico e isobutírico con alcoholes alifáticos de C4 a C6, entre los que sobresale el angelato de isobutilo (36,0-25,8%). Por destilación, del mismo modo que en la manzanilla común, se origina camazuleno, aunque en porcentaje muy bajo. Según la Farmacopea Europea, el contenido en aceite esencial respecto a droga desecada no debe ser inferior a 7 mL/kg.
There are few studies on the pharmacological activity of Roman chamomile and even less on its clinical efficacy.
The drug is a bitter-aromatic that stimulates the appetite and favors the process of digestion. It also has spasmolytic, carminative and anti-inflammatory action. In this latter activity, both camazulene and sesquiterpene lactones are involved.
The European Medicines Agency (EMA), approves its traditional use, based on its prolonged use, for the symptomatic treatment of mild gastrointestinal spasmodic affections, such as bloating and flatulence. also in inflammations of the oropharyngeal cavity.EMA recommendations for adolescents, adults and the elderly:

- Infusion: 1-4 g / cup, 3 times a day between meals.

- As mouthwash or gargle: 2-3 g of drug in infusion, 3-4 times a day.

- Liquid extract (1: 1, ethanol 70% v / v): 1-4 mL, 3 times a day.
Use the essential oil with caution: In high doses it is emetic.Although the frequency of allergic reactions is very low, it is recommended not to use in the case of a known allergy to plants of the Compound family.
Sage leaf [4] Sage[106]Salvia officinalis
The dried leaf (Salviae folium) is used.Essential oil (up to 3%) consisting mainly of α-tuyona (10-60%), ß-tuyona (4-36%), camphor (5-20%) and 1,8-cineol (2-15%) . The composition is very variable depending on the origin of the drug, time of collection, etc.

- Derivatives of hydroxycinnamic acid (ca. 3.5%), mainly rosmarinic acid (up to 3.3%), which have been collectively considered as "tannins" since they can be absorbed by the skin powder according to the method of determination of tannins of the European Pharmacopoeia, although from a chemical point of view they do not possess the structure of authentic tannins.

- Phenolic diterpenes with a bitter taste, among which the most important is carnosol.
The sage leaf has antibacterial and antifungal action, mainly due to the essential oil, and antiviral action due, in part, to diterpenes. Their preparations have a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity to which their phenolic constituents contribute, both carnosol and especially rosmarinic acid. It also has astringent, spasmolytic, secretory and antiperspirant stimulating action. This last activity has been demonstrated experimentally in animals and in clinical studies.According to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and ESCOP, the drug is indicated in the symptomatic treatment of inflammations of the oral cavity and throat, such as stomatitis, gingivitis and pharyngitis, as well as in case of hyperhidrosis. In addition, the EMA contemplates the use of sage leaf preparations in the symptomatic treatment of mild digestive disorders such as heartburn or abdominal distension and in the case of small cutaneous inflammations.According to EMA, the doses in adults and the elderly are:

a) Digestive disorders:

- 1-2 g of drug cut in infusion, 3 times a day.

- Dry aqueous extract (4-7: 1): 320 mg divided into 3-4 doses.

- Fluid extract (1: 7.2), prepared with liquor: 96% v / v ethanol (38.25: 61.75 m / m): 20 drops, 3 times a day.

- Fluid extract (1: 3.5-5, ethanol 31.5% v / v): 10 drops, 3 times a day dissolved in some liquid.

- Tincture (1:10, 70% v / v ethanol): 2-3 mL, 3 times a day.
At high doses (equivalent to more than 15 g of drug) or in prolonged treatments, pure essential oil or alcohol extracts can be neurotoxic and convulsive due to the presence of thujone acting on the CNS. Topically, it can cause skin irritations. For this reason, the use of sage chemotypes with a low content of thujone is preferred and the sage leaf preparations should not be used for more than two weeks internally and not more than one week topically. After this time, if the symptoms persist, a doctor should be consulted.An experimental study of the toxic properties of commercialised essential oil of sage has revealed that the convulsant action was of central nervous system origin in unanaesthetised rats. The dose limit from which the cortical events are subclinical is 0.3 g/kg for sage oil. Above 0.50 g/kg for sage oil, the convulsions appeared, and became lethal above 3.2 g/kg (ESCOP, 2003). The toxicity appeared to be related to the presence of camphor and thujone in Salvia officinalis oil (Millet et al., 1981; Newall et al., 2002). Acute LD50 values for sage oil are documented as 2.6 g/kg in rats for oral administration (ESCOP, 2003; Bradley, 2006) and 5 g/kg in rabbits for intradermal administration (Barnes et al., 2002).
St. John's Wort flower[101][102]
St. John's Wort[108]
Hypericum officinale [7] [8]
The drug is constituted by the sumidad florida dried (Hyperici herba), whole or cut, collected during flowering.Naftodiantronas (0.05-0.3%): hypericin, pseudohypericin, isohipericin, protohipericin. According to the RFE, the drug must contain not less than 0.08% of total hypericins expressed as hypericin. Prenylated derivatives of phloroglucinol: hyperforin (2-4.5%), adhyperforin (0.2-1.8%). Flavonoids (2-4%): hyperoside, rutoside, quercitides, isoquercitróside. Bisflavones: amentoflavone. Xanthones. Derivatives of caffeic acid: chlorogenic, gentisic, ferulic. Proanthocyanidins. Essential oil, rich in α-pinene and other monoterpenes. Abundant tannins (3-16%). Phytosterols: β-sitosterol. Coumarins: umbelliferone.The traditional use of St. John's wort has been as a healing and antibacterial. At present, its main interest is due to its antidepressant properties, although it also has antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activity.

The antibacterial activity seems to depend to a great extent on the time of collection. This action has been proven for various extracts of the drug, as well as for hypericum oil (maceration of fresh drug in oil) and also for essential oil.
In internal use at present its main application is in the treatment of depression, although it is also indicated in anxiety, night terrors, neurovegetative disorders associated with the climacteric.
In topical use it is popularly used for the treatment of wounds, sores, burns and eczema.
The monograph published by Commission E indicates that the preparations of St. John's Wort have as applications: psychosomatic disturbances, moderate and mild depressive disorders, anxiety and nervous fatigue.
The following dosages for adults and the elderly are indicated in the monograph of the EMA:
1. Mild and moderate depression (well-established use)
- Dry hydroalcoholic extract (3-7: 1, 80% v / v methanol): 300-600 mg, 1-3 times / day.
- Dry hydroalcoholic extract (3-6: 1, ethanol 80% v / v): 900 mg, 1 time / day.
- Dry hydroalcoholic extract (2.5-8: 1, ethanol 50-68% v / v): 612 mg 1 time / day or 250-650 mg 2-3 times / day (daily dose: 500-1200 mg).

It does not recommend administration to children or adolescents under 18 years of age because it considers that there are not enough data.
Preparations based on St. John's wort should not be used simultaneously with other medications without medical supervision.
Effects on pregnancy and lactation: no data available. According to the usual medical practice, its use during pregnancy and lactation should be avoided, except by prescription and under medical supervision.
Incompatibility with foods and plants containing tyramine (the association could produce elevations in blood pressure) is not supported by clinical observations, it is rather of a speculative nature
No photosensitizing effects have been described at doses higher than 1 mg of total hypericin, however it could occur at much higher doses. Photosensitive patients should be cautious with direct sun exposure while using Hypericum.
In people with HIV, synthetic hypericin injected intravenously (at a dose of 35 mg) induced significant phototoxicity.
The appearance of pruritus and rash has been observed with a frequency lower than 0.52% in patients using 900 mg / day of Hypericum extract.
Studies on long-term toxicity (900 mg/kg and 2700 mg/kg extract per day (LI 160, extraction solvent methanol 80%, DER 3-6:1), 26 weeks treatment) in rats and dogs revealed only minor non-specific symptoms (weight loss, minor pathological changes in liver and kidney). All changes reverted to normal when treatment was stopped (Leuschner 1996, Greeson et al. 2001). The dosages were approximately 70 and 200 times the mean therapeutic dosage.
StaphisagriaStaphisagriaDelphinium staphisagriaThe seeds.Oil (30-50%). Diterpene alkaloids (1-1.3%): delphinine, delphininoid and delphisine are the most abundant, staphysagroin and staphylococrine appear only in traces.Delphinine and delphininoidin are toxic alkaloids that act as allosteric modulators of sodium channels. They induce a decrease in respiratory and cardiac rhythm. These alkaloids have properties similar to aconitine, with delphinine being much more toxic than delphininoidin.In disuse. Because of its toxicity, internal use is not recommended in doses of weight (exclusive use in homeopathic form). Externally, it was used against pediculosis, scabies and neuralgias, mainly facials.For local wounds, it is necessary to consume Staphysagria 5 CH or 7 CH. For deeper lesions, it is advisable to use the 5 CH dilution of Staphysagria. If the wounds are recent, it is necessary to take 5 9 CH Staphysagria granules every two hours before spacing the shots. However, treatment should continue for a week.It should not be used on ulcerated skin or with dermatological problems.In external use it can cause tingling, irritation, burning and inflammation.
Thuja[98]ThujaThuja occidentalisyoung branchesEssential oil (0.5-1%): rich in α and ß-tuyona (50-60%), accompanied by fenchona, sabinene, α-pinene, borneol and the diterpenes beyereno and rimueno.Popularly used as emenagogue, anthelmintic and expectorant; in external use, as astringent and antihemorrhoidal; the essential oil as antiverrucous.The tincture was used as an agent for the treatment by cauterization of papillomas and candilomas and as an abortifacient.Unless otherwise prescribed, use 1-2 g of drug, 3 times per day, or equivalent amounts of other preparations.It is recommended to avoid administration internally, since it is a potent neurotoxic in which high doses produces psychic disorders.It can cause asthma attacks, intestinal irritation, and miscarriage. There is very little know about thuja, so taking it internally is not recommended by medical professionals.
Valerian root [30]ValerianValeriana officinalis L.The valerian root (Valerianae radix) is constituted by the underground organs (rhizome, roots and stolons) dried, whole, fragmented or cut (for infusion) of Valeriana officinalis L.Essential oil (0.3-1%) containing monoterpenes: bornyl, camphene and pinene esters, among others; sesquiterpenes: valerenal and valeranone, mainly; and less volatile sesquiterpene acids: valeric acid and acetoxivalenic acid. Amino acids: gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamine and arginine, in relatively high proportions. The valerian root also contains flavonoids (2S (-) - hesperidin and 6-methyl-apigenin) and lignans (8'-hydroxypinoresinol). and traces of alkaloidsValerian root preparations have sedative and sleep-inducing action, whose main mechanism would be an increase in GABAergic transmission. The binding capacity of valerian extracts to GABAA receptors has been demonstrated.According to ESCOP: Relief of episodes of mild nervous tension and difficulty in falling asleep. The EMA accepts this same indication as a well-established medical use of hydroalcoholic extracts and accepts the traditional use of the drug, tincture, dry extracts, essential oil and fresh root juice for relief of mild stress symptoms mental and to facilitate sleep. Valerian root, at a dose of 765 mg / day, has been shown to be effective in reducing dysmenorrhea and also vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes) in menopausal women.ESCOP: Adults: 1-3 g, per dose, of drug in infusion or the equivalent amount of aqueous or ethanolic extract (maximum 70% ethanol). For the relief of nervous tension and irritability, up to 3 doses per day; to help you fall asleep, an average dose at one hour before bedtime, plus a previous dose, if necessary. Elderly: the same dose as adults. Children between 3-12 years, only under medical supervision. EMA: For adults, adolescents over 12 years old and elderly: Well established use: Dry extract (3-7.4: 1, ethanol 40-70% v / v) To relieve nervous tension: 400-600 mg, up to 3 times a day. For sleep disorders: 400-600 mg, before going to bed and, if necessary, a mid-afternoon dose.According to ESCOP, valerian root preparations are contraindicated in children under three years of age. In children under 12 years of age, the EMA considers that there is not enough documentation to recommend its use.It is not recommended to use it immediately before driving vehicles or using dangerous machines, as they can reduce the patient's monitoring status 1-2 hours after administration. If taken immediately before going to bed, it produces paradoxical reactions with relative frequency, especially restless sleep with hypersomnia.. In spontaneous motility tests, doses of 20 and 200 mg/kg diminished the motility moderately, while in control animals 5 mg and 25 mg of diazepam resulted in substantial reductions in motility shortly after administration. The extract increased thiopental-induced sleeping time by factors of 1.6 at 2 mg/kg (p<0.01) and 7.6 at 200 mg/kg (p<0.01) compared to a factor of 4.7 for chlorpromazine at 4 mg/kg (Leuschner et al., 1993). Valerenic acid caused inhibition of spontaneous motility after i.p. administration to mice at a dose of50 mg/kg, ataxia and temporary immobility at a dose of 100 mg/kg, muscle spasms at doses of 150-200 mg/kg, and severe convulsions and mortality at a dose of 400 mg/kg (6 of 7 animals ad exitum 24 h after administration) (Hendriks et al., 1985).
White hellebore rootsWhite helleboreVeratrum album
The rhizome, the roots.Alkaloids (1-1.5%), complex steroid structure:
Yer-veratrum group: Yervin (50% of total alkaloids), veratramine and its glycosides (pseudoyervin, veratrosin).
Group ce-veratrum: Protoveratrinas A and B.
It has an anxiolytic and strongly hypotensive action. Parasiticide in topical use.It is not recommended to use.Homeopathic remedies single dose globules can be used in various symptoms, so it is not possible to determine the indications and doses of a specific preparation.It is an extremely toxic plant so it is recommended that it is only used under prescription and medical control.Symptoms of poisoning include: dizziness, nausea, burning of the digestive mucosa, excessive salivation, seizures, stupor and severe diarrhea.
Wolfsbane root [72]WolfsbaneAconitum NapellusRoot: Fresh or dried tubers and roots are harvested in the fall after flowering. The leaf is rarely used, collected at the beginning of flowering and dried.The drugs contain terpenic alkaloids (0.5-1.5%), the main one being aconitine. Other alkaloids appear, to a lesser extent, such as hypaconitine, jesaconitine, pseudaconitine, licaconitine, neipelin, napelin, neoline. Organic acids: aconitic, citric, tartaric. Hill. Variable composition depending on the chemotype, collection season, and drying and storage conditions.Aconitine gives the drug anesthetic properties, by modifying the nerve endings (paralyzes peripheral nerve endings and bulbar). It induces decreased respiratory rate and atrioventricular dissociation. It acts at the level of sodium channels. Antipyretic, antitussive and decongestant (vasoconstrictor).It is practically not used internally because of its high toxicity. Only under facultative prescription. Topically it is used for the treatment of neuralgias (lumbociática and trigémino), although adverse side effects in this route of administration have also been described.Traditionally liniments have been used at 1.3% aconitine.Pregnancy, breastfeeding, children, combination with alcohol, antihistamines, hypnotics, antiarrhythmics, antidiabetics, antihypertensives, anesthetics, antidepressants, diuretics, spasmolytics. It is contraindicated for use in patients with heart problems, diabetes, depression or with gastrointestinal disorders.Aconi can cause acute toxicity even at therapeutic doses (see precautions). Initial toxic effects of the plant include nausea, vomiting, vertigo, numbness of the face, throat and limbs and cardiac dysfunction. Topically, it can cause tingling and numbness.
Woody nightshade stem [85]Bitter NightshadeSolanum dulcamara[115]
Fresh bark and berries are used.Summarity: Steroid glycosalcaloids of the spirosolan type. Berries: Lycopene, licoxanthine, resins, tannins, saponosides, alkaloids, especially in immature fruits being almost nonexistent in mature fruit. The stem and bark have been popularly used as a diuretic and laxative, being considered "depurative". Topically, as an analgesic.
Fresh berries, applied topically, have an intense rubefacient, analgesic effect.
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) and Commission E approve the traditional use of stems for the treatment of chronic eczema.
Popularly the stems, the bark and eventually the leaves have been used to "cleanse the blood". Fresh berries are used in rural areas, in topical use, to relieve osteoarticular inflammations.
Infusion or decoction: 1-2 g in 150 mL of water, allow to cool and apply topically 1-5 times a day.Fresh berries should not be applied on mucous membranes or in altered skin areas (wounds, ulcers, burns, eczema).The safety of stems during pregnancy, lactation and in children has not been proven.8 out of 10 Syrian hamsters died after orally administered fruits of Solanum dulcamara L. and had gastric glandular mucosal necrosis and small intestinal mucosal necrosis with little inflammation. The total alkaloid concentration as percent dry matter of the fruits was 0.030%. The fruit contained the steroidal alkaloid in the glycoside form of which 50% had the aglycone solasodine (Baker et al., 1989 The toxicity of α-solamargine, one of the steroid alkaloid glycosides present in Solanum dulcamara L.
has been studied in rats. The i.p. LD50 was 42 mg/kg b.w. No animal died earlier than 6 hours. At 60 mg/kg b.w. the rats died within 3 hours.

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